Yes: Elite has an internal "HMD Quality" setting, that stacks on top of one's SteamVR/Oculus one: SteamVR at "5", and "HMDQ" at "2.0" results in 4.47 times supersampling.
But... at that point, the compositor's texture filter is not taking anywhere near enough samples from the rendered images, that it does any good for antialiasing purposes (It'll be skipping every second texel, pretty much).
What one can do (and every Elite Dangerous player with a 1080Ti owes themselves checking it out just once), is (whilst keeping the product of VR Runtime supersampling and "HMD Quality" around 2.0) to use the game's "Supersampling" setting, on top of the lower level one. This will render a larger image, just like the others, but it will be downsampled before it is handed over to the VR Runtime, so you have twice the size, as per "HMD Quality", then twice again, for "Supersampling"; After rendering, the output is scaled down to the first double size, which the VR Runtime then uses to the fullest. This way, almost every rendered pixel goes into the final output, and few are just thrown away. (...and if you have SteamVR using its older texture filtering method (it's an option), you still benefit from a slight bit of aliasing, that makes things look way sharper and more detailed (you see more detail by moving your head -- that lets your brain do the same kind of thing some old scanners used have an option to do, where they'd do a second pass scan, with the sensor array shifted half a pixel to the side, ))
x4.0 is impractical for actual play, of course, given the massive workload; and in-game "supersampling" should always be left at 1.0, with precedence given to VR_Runtime_SS/HMD_Quality, which makes better use of the extra resolution (being as it takes into account the predistortion for the lenses, and does not constitute an extra "generation" of reductions.
(Unfortunately the game also streams down to lower level mipmaps, when one supersamples this much, even if one have the VRAM to spare. None the less, it still make things render nicer. :7 )